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【宋瑛堂翻譯專欄】有ChatGPT改寫,中翻英譯者有救了?

  • 字級



狼又來了。這次是真的。

是嗎?

我在美國有位當房東的白人朋友,2011年他改行去讀「律師助理」學位。不久後,IBM 的 Watson 風光登場,在益智問答節目 Jeopardy! 擊敗兩位歷屆冠軍,當時紛紛有人預言哪些行業死定了,客服、資料輸入員、電話推銷員、公路收費員、作業線員工,都被點名,律師助理也在其中。朋友聽他中年轉業,敷衍個「Interesting!」就改變話題。

\2011年人工智慧系統Watson在益智節目擊敗人類/

這裡的 Interesting 不怎麼「有趣」。在備受爭議的2022台北城市博覽會官網,最初把「有趣」英譯成 interesting,殊不知這英文形容詞早已貶值成言不及義的客套話,用在官方文宣裡,顯得無趣當有趣。原譯下架後,新版英譯果然具備三兩三,「有趣」改譯成 fascinating(迷人)。假如你是原版譯者,只會寫台式英文,自知拚不過高手,又為了生計所逼,無法改行,不妨找「恰姬」(ChatGPT)幫幫忙。誰快失業了?連 AI 業者都不敢斷言。趕快自保飯碗才是王道。打不倒大魔王,就向大魔王靠攏吧。


台北城市博覽會官網被指出有英譯問題,後來官方已緊急修改。(圖片來源/Translation Matters 翻譯有要緊臉書


在創意不是很重要的文類領域裡,恰姬可以是中翻英譯者的賢內助,前提是你的英文寫作能力要達到一定水準。恰姬接獲指令:Act as if you are a professional editor and rewrite the following article,能把原譯改成符合母語人士的文法和用語,把 interesting 改成 captivating(令人著迷)或intriguing(引人入勝)。

橫空出世的恰姬還有以下絕活:

台北正在進行式

原譯:Taipei is in progress

恰姬改寫:Taipei is an ever-evolving city


「正在進行式」有無語病並不重要,意思大家都明白,不過原譯的 in progress 語意朦朧,人工改譯為 a work in progress 表示「尚未完工」較明確。然而,恰姬改寫成「不斷演進」,獨具正向意味,最貼近原文主軸。

決定下一秒的台北未來

原譯:to decide the future of Taipei in the next second.

恰姬改寫:to shape the future of our city in the moments to come.


英文 decide 感覺像投票表決,恰姬改用「形塑」較貼切。「下一秒」直譯成英文變調了,in the moments to come 才對。原譯這句和 Google Translate一模一樣,是巧合嗎?請恰姬直接中翻英,成績也只比孤狗或 DeepL 好一些些,再度證明機器翻譯想取代人工還早。這一局,原譯+恰姬改寫=戰勝機翻。

台北市民的疑問、想像與心聲都在這裡

原譯:The questions, imaginations, and thoughts of Taipei people are all here.

恰姬改寫:where the questions, imaginations, and thoughts of Taipei's vibrant community converge.


People(民眾)被恰姬改為潮語 community(社群),高招,可惜恰姬多加一個形容詞 vibrant,是畫蛇添足的敗筆。「都在這裡」用動詞 converge(匯聚),比軟趴趴、中規中矩的原譯 are all here 帶勁。

你將看見獨特豐富的台北風貌
原譯:you will be met with the richness of all the unique things that Taipei has to offer.

恰姬改寫:the distinct and abundant tapestry of Taipei unfolds before your eyes.


再獨特再豐富的句子也會被 things(東西)這麼乾澀的字煞風景。被動式 will be met with 也不如恰姬主動把「與眾不同而豐富的台北織錦畫呈現你眼前」。

恰姬還不只能幫你潤英文稿。如果指令改成 Act as if you are a copy writer,叫她改寫成廣告文案,句型能更加靈活,詞藻能更加花稍。

這裡是你我生活、工作、夢想的起始

原譯:This is the beginning of our life, work, and dreams.

恰姬改寫版:This marks the inception of our journey through life, work, and aspirations.

恰姬文案版:Welcome to the dawn of our collective journey, where life, work, and dreams intertwine.


文案版一改原文的語氣,揮灑成「歡迎大家見證你我共同旅程的破曉時分」。陡變的句型也出現在下一句。

你能找到實現夢想的幸福成就感

原譯:You can find a sense of achievement in happiness of realizing your dreams.

恰姬改寫版:You can find a sense of fulfillment and happiness in the pursuit of your dreams.

恰姬文案版:where your dreams find fertile ground and unlock a sense of accomplishment and joy.


文案版字序狂變,意象更顯鮮活。「你的夢想能根植沃土中,能解鎖喜悅成就感。

再舉一個遭炎上的極惡核心「酸甘甜」。原譯 sweet and sour 是直譯,招惹廣大劣評,但近年英國創作歌手 Ed Sheeran 藉〈The Shape of You〉傳唱世界,而且 sweet and sour pork 是美式中餐菜單必備的佳餚,已不至於造成誤解,連人工改譯版也認同。在這方面,恰姬順應民意,翻譯為 the unique blend of joy and challenges。Unique 是超譯但意譯到位,黑特沒得罵。除此之外,「台北一直是追求夢想的朋友移居的首選之地」,恰姬改寫成 Taipei has always been the ultimate destination for dream-chasers,言簡意賅,「終極落腳地」和「尋夢者」兩名詞就能傳達整句精髓,女神請收下小譯者膝蓋。

\紅髮艾德歌詞用了「the sweet and the sour」表示生活的酸甜苦辣/

話說回來,恰姬並非完勝。原文的「坐上飛行器」,我乍看以為博覽會現場備有遊戲機或 VR 頭戴裝置,其實只是原作者的溢美譬喻法,象徵上帝視角,原譯受騙了,恰姬則改成「彷彿乘坐飛機」,都不如人工改譯的「凌空俯瞰全城」。原文的「乘坐時光機」也是,導致原譯和恰姬聯袂搭錯車,人工改譯版是 Travel back in time(回首往昔),以動詞呈現,不提時光機,不造成誤解。

人工改譯版另有亮眼的絕譯。「全齡呵護」以 all-inclusive care 詮釋不僅涵蓋長者,連寵物也納入庇蔭。

享受台北給老伴到寵伴的全齡呵護

原譯:enjoy all-ages care from elderly couple to pet companions provided by Taipei.

人工改譯:delight in the all-inclusive care that Taipei provides for everyone - from the elderly to pet companions.

恰姬改寫:revel in the care provided by Taipei for people of all ages, from the elderly to our beloved pets.


任何一篇文章寫到最後,無論是原文創作或譯本,收尾如果蕩氣迴腸,能給讀者的印象最深,也最能秤出譯者的斤兩。

邀請你參與共創屬於我們的未來

原譯:we invite you to participate in creating the future along to us.

人工改譯:we invite you to come and create its future with us, for us.

恰姬改寫:we cordially invite you to join us in actively shaping the future together.


人工改譯版 with us, for us,節奏明快堅定,兩度強調「我們」,氣勢凌駕眾譯,更勝原文。

讀到這裡,你的職涯算式可能變成:高手譯者+恰姬=東方不敗,但中翻英的大俠並非可以從此躺著譯。恰姬的改寫版屢見過度翻譯的贅字,例如上述的「與眾不同」、「活躍」,甚至「令人著迷」或「引人入勝」等形容詞也是恰姬高頻字,因為這些全是英文圈的文案寫手萬用不疲的俗字,頻繁到了含義貶值成趨近零。畢竟恰姬這款生成器的特長是找語言裡的最小公約數,原理相當於手機鍵盤的預測字詞,是一隻見鬼講鬼話的隨機鸚鵡(stochastic parrot),能為你從上文推論全宇宙用戶最常打的下一個字,俗到你喊:Interesting!

更何況,翻譯的樂趣在於挑戰難題。難關全被恰姬攻破了,大作被改成俗套,譯者角色淪為挑老鼠屎,說好的幸福成就感呢?

寫這則文章期間,我去西雅圖參加一位姻親的喪禮,儀式依天主教習俗進行彌撒,由神父致候、祈禱、讀經,由歌嗓清亮高亢的領唱者帶動答唱詠。歸塵土、見神、長眠、阿肋路亞,祭悼文和一般宗教差不多,現場肅穆無反應。然而,當白髮神父特別提及逝者生前言行,教堂裡瞬間抽泣聲四起,神父繼續引述聖經,氣氛歸於平靜,但他接著又穿插逝者生前一件趣事,有人笑出聲,但更多人垂頭頻頻拭淚,和逝者只見過三四次面的我也不禁鼻酸。神父少少幾句撥人心弦的言語,竟然激盪出長篇制式經文勾不起的深情,霎時令我想到,恰姬、經文,難道不是同一回事?都是打不進人心的老哏和窠臼。

十幾年後的今天,我那位美國朋友依然在律師事務所上班。我問他會不會被恰姬取代?他說法律界既定的限制太多,新科技雖然會造成職務項目微調,例如蒐證用的爬梳軟體是律師助理的高效率低薪機器人,事務所樂於採用,但律師助理這一行短期不可能被淘汰。我想也是。我讀到有個紐約律師省略助理這一關,寫訴狀時直接叫恰姬提供幾個案例,然後問恰姬這些案例是否屬實、出處何在,結果訴狀一呈堂,馬上被法官打槍,原來恰姬是個騙人不眨眼的妖姬,案例全是她胡謅譫妄出的狗屁,判例出處全是假的,害這律師身敗名裂,可能從此退出江湖。當年 Watson 在機智問答節目一戰成名,IBM 打鐵趁熱推出 Watson M.D. 醫療軟體,連醫師這一行都被記者名列賜死榜,但現在還記得 Watson 的請舉手。

自認不會被取代的美國朋友接著說,「我倒認為,記者和翻譯會比我更早出局。」

又來了一個章魚哥/印度神童。

—————
附錄:2022台北城市博覽會文案
中文原文
台北,一直是追求夢想的朋友移居的首選之地,但只有聚集於此的台北人,才真正明白在地生活的酸甘甜!台北市民的疑問、想像與心聲都在這裡;台北願景的勾勒實現,更需要全員參與。親愛的台北人,讓我們一同加入思考和行動,決定下一秒的台北未來!

走進城市博覽會,你將看見獨特豐富的台北風貌。從還原山水地的美麗開始,坐上飛行器,體驗首善之都在「永續發展」的努力;由台北中心往外看,在每一寸的改變創新中目睹「城市再生」價值;乘坐時光機「打開台北」,自由書寫在這裡的全新故事;領一張「共融社會」的入場券,享受台北給老伴到寵伴的全齡呵護;在最支持「創新創業」的環境裡,你能找到實現夢想的幸福成就感;同時享受「智慧城市」帶來最頂尖、有趣又便捷的科技大未來。

這裡是你我生活、工作、夢想的起始,台北正在進行式,邀請你參與共創屬於我們的未來。

原譯
Taipei has always been the first choice to move to for people who are pursuing their dreams. But only the Taipei people who live here can truly understand the sweet and sour of living here! The questions, imaginations, and thoughts of Taipei people are all here. To realize the vision of Taipei also needs the participation of all people. Dear Taipei people, let us join in thinking and taking action to decide the future of Taipei in the next second. 

Walking into the Taipei Expo, you will see the unique and rich Taipei style. Starting from restoring the beauty of the natural environment, get on an aircraft to experience the efforts of the Leading City in “Sustainable Development”. Looking out from Taipei downtown, witness the value of “Urban Regeneration” in every inch of change and innovation. Ride the Time Machine “Open Taipei” and freely write a new story here. Get an admission ticket of “Inclusive Society”, enjoy all-ages care from elderly couple to pet companions provided by Taipei. In the environment that most support “Innovative Entrepreneurship”, you can find a sense of achievement in happiness of realizing your dreams. At the same time, enjoy the top-notch, interesting and convenient technology future brought by the “Smart City”. 

This is the beginning of our life, work, and dreams. Taipei is in progress; we invite you to participate in creating the future along to us.

人工改譯
Taipei has always been the place for people to pursue their dreams, but only those who live here truly understand the sweet and sour of this city. Here, you will find the questions and thoughts of the citizens of Taipei, as well as their vision for the future. To realize Taipei’s vision, the participation of all is needed. People of Taipei, let us think and act together, so that we may decide what awaits Taipei in the future.

Upon you stepping into the Taipei Expo, you will be met with the richness of all the unique things that Taipei has to offer.

Starting from the restoration of our beautiful natural environment, you will be able to see Taipei’s efforts in "Sustainable Development" as if you were flying over the city. Looking outward from downtown Taipei, witness the value of "Urban Regeneration" in every inch of change and innovation. Travel back in time to "Open Taipei", and write a new story in its pages.

Get a ticket to this "Inclusive Society", and delight in the all-inclusive care that Taipei provides for everyone - from the elderly to pet companions. In Taipei, where "Innovative Entrepreneurship" is given the utmost support, you can find happiness and a sense of achievement in realizing your dreams. At the same time, enjoy cutting-edge, fascinating, and convenient technology in a future brought to you by a "Smart City".

This is where life, work and dreams begin for you and me. Taipei is a work in progress, and we invite you to come and create its future with us, for us.



作者簡介

台大外文系畢業,台大新聞碩士,著有《譯者即叛徒?》,以《內景唐人街》獲「梁實秋文學大師獎」翻譯首獎。曾任China Post記者、副採訪主任、Student Post主編等職。文學譯作包括《勸誘之邦》《十二月十日》《迷蹤》《分手去旅行》《修正》《該隱與亞伯》《斷背山》《鼠族》《蘭花賊》《宙斯的女兒》等。

✎OKAPI專訪:「趕進度時,壯士譯者要有斷網的決心。」──專訪《譯者即叛徒?》作者、資深譯者宋瑛堂

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